What are biodiversity?
Biodiversity consists of two words. BIO + DIVERSITY. bio means life and diversity means variability. Biodiversity is also known as variability among living organisms like plants, animals, human beings and micro organisms etc. so, we can say that where all types of living organisms apart or live is called as biodiversity.
Biodiversity is the most essential feature of our planet and it is the most vital. Without biodiversity, “there is no future for living organisms on the earth.” Conservation of biodiversity is very important for all the living organisms to live.
In legislature method government has some formal polices and acts, there are Environmental protection act(1986), Fisheries act(1897), Forest act(1927), Forest conservation act(1980), and Wildlife protection act(1972).
HUMAN IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY
- The Destruction, Degradation and Fragmentations of Habitats.
- Exploitation of species.
- Introduction of Alien species.
- Climate change.
1. Destruction, Degradation and Fragmentation of Habitats: Destruction of natural habitats causes the most serious spread to the biodiversity. Habitats are distroyed by many human activities like Development work: human settlement, harbours, dams, reservoirs, roads, railway lives etc. have reduced the natural habitats of wild life.
DEFORESTATION: It deprives the wild life of cover and food. This lead to the decrease of population of a species. It also reduce the free area movement of wild life animals. which is not good for them.
2. Pollution: Pollution has various parts but Environmental pollution has degraded many important habitats, resulting in decrease in life. Pollution has many types like: environmental pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, soil pollution etc.
Air pollution is the most dangerous form of the pollution. It is caused of industrial factories, comes from vehicles, combustion of fossil fuels, electronic devices etc. Also it’s very harmful and deadly for human beings.
Water is an important part of our daily life. we are totally directly or indirectly dependent of water. Human daily activities like washing clothes, utensils, and other activities near lakes, river and ponds also cause of water pollution.
Soil pollution occurs because of unwanted chemicals, in the soil due to human activities makes the soil pollution.
Noise pollution like sounds produce from vehicles horn, industries etc. causes noise pollution. Noise pollution causes like hearing loss, hypertension, mental losses and other harmful effects.
The air we breathe, the water we drink and the food we eat all rely on biodiversity- It is very important for us and we have to secure it for our future.
Biodiversity of India
Why is Biodiversity is Important?
Biodiversity is most important for our lives because it maintain the eco-system and we can take food from plants and animals. It has contribute in many ways in the development of human culture and in turns, human communities have played a major role in shaping the diversity of the nature at the genetic, species and ecological level.
Ecological role of Biodiversity:
- species of many kind perform some function or the other in an ecosystem evolves and sustain without any reason.
- That means, every organisms besides extracting it needs, also contributes something of useful to other organisms.
- Species capture and store energy, produce and decompose organic material help to cycle water and nutrients throughout the ecosystem. Fix atmosphere gases help to regulate the climate. These function are important for ecosystem functions and human survival.
- The more the varity of species in an ecosystem the more stable the ecosystem is likely to be.
Economic rule of Biodiversity:
- One of the important part of Biodiversity is CROP-DIVERSITY. which is also called as Agro-diversity.
- Biodiversity is seen as reservoir of resources to be drawn upon for the manufacture of food and cosmetic products.
- At the same time it is also, the origin of new conflicts dating with rules of division and appropriation of natural resources.
- Some of the important economic commodities, that biodiversity supplies to humankind are– food, crops, livestock, forests, fish, medicinal resources etc.
International Day for biological diversity, also known as World biodiversity Day is observed on May 22 to promote biodiversity issues. This year celebratation focus on biodiversity as the foundation for our food and health.
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